SIAS Newsletter No 83

 

NEWSLETTER No. 83. July 1994.
Selected items - dated ones omitted etc.

SIAS VISIT TO FRESHFIELD LANE BRICKWORKS, DANEHILL. 198 TQ385262 
Wednesday, the first of June, saw us travelling to Freshfield Brickworks, and as we approached via the Bluebell Line we were very relieved that we had not come in the motor caravan. The van is 9 foot high - the bridge is marked 8 ft! It was in June 197'9 that we last visited the brickworks with the Society and we wondered what alterations had been made in those 15 years. On arrival we found Freddie Sowrey who had organised the visit and about 40 other familiar faces who had turned up on this magnificent sunny day. We were divided into two groups and set off for the clay pit. This had been an estate brick works until 1899 and was still making bricks by hand until 1928 when the first brick making machine was installed. The works are owned by the Hardy family and produce between 14 and 15 million machine made and half a million special hand made bricks a year. All. are clamp fired. In the pit the overburden of sand-rock is removed and the clay transported by lorry to the weathering stockpile, where it is exposed to the elements for up to twelve months and allowed to prove. For the technically minded, the pit is sited on an exposure of the Tunbridge Wells Sand formation of the Hastings beds and also uses the Grinstead clay which is a subordinate bed of this foundation, whilst the blue Wadhurst intrudes into the strata from below. This blue clay is dug for only about 6 weeks each year, providing the 10% which is used in the brick clay mix.

A bulldozer is used to move the material from the stockpile to the charging grid, and it is here that the various watered clays are mixed with about 8% "Coalite" breeze. The latter is added to the clay to give a self burning aggregate of about 10%. This mix travels on a conveyor belt up to an edge runner grinding mill which has a grid base ensuring that any rock is reduced to at least 3/8ths inch grading. More water is added at this point to give a 25% water content to the brick clay mix. Conveyor belts then take the material to one of the six brick making machines, where it falls into a bladed pug mill which extrudes the plastic material into a three brick wooden mould with metal frogs in the base, already automatically sanded by the machine. The moulding sand prevents the clay sticking and gives an attractive finish to the brick. Pressure is automatically applied to fill any corner voids and the mould positioned for manual release of the green bricks onto a metal pallet by a second operator who then transfers them to a drying oven trolley. The mould is then re-sanded for recycling. Three times each day the wooden moulds are washed under pressure to ensure removal of any adhering clay. When fired the bricks shrink by about 10% so the moulds are larger than the finished product.

When we visited in 1979, there were only three brick making machines, but this has been increased to six and in a couple of years time the number of bricks being produced will double due to the installing of a new machine, made in Holland, which will be entirely automatic and produce on one machine the same number the present six produce. These six machines are "Perry's Patent Brickmaking Machines" No.259656 made by Perry and Son of Westcliffe on Sea.

The drying oven trolleys, each containing 3% green bricks are wheeled into the ovens. There they are air dried at 225 degrees for 31 days, the heat being supplied by huge gas jets blown into the oven by electric fans. Over 43,000 bricks pass through the three drying ovens each day. During this time the moisture content of the brick is reduced from 2090 to 2%. Fork lift trucks carry the trolleys into one of the three roofed areas where the clamps are constructed. These are hand built ('crowded') and when finished contain over a million bricks each. To ensure stability the cross section is given a saucer shape and the bricks slightly spaced, so that 10 occupy the space of 12. A grid of already burnt bricks is laid to allow air to circulate and to provide and foundation. Eight inches of coke breeze are laid on top, serving as a base for the green bricks. 28 layers complete the height of the clamp and a double layer of rejected burnt bricks is placed around the sides and on top, providing an external cladding. An ignition oven is formed at one end and filled with 3 ft. timber logs. As the wood is consumed so coke is rammed in until the clamp is alight across its full width. The full operating temperature is between 950 and 1,000 degrees and this hot zone, once established, moves along the clamp slowly but automatically. The burning is quite slow, taking about 10 weeks to travel from one end to the other. The bum is started when the clamp is about one third completed and loading continues. The clamp is about 180 foot long, 50 foot wide and 28 bricks high. It takes a total of twelve weeks, from the start of the building of the clamp until the burnt bricks are completely unloaded.

We were taken to each of the areas during our visit and it was quite exciting to walk over the burning clamp and see the pink hot bricks burning a few layers below our feet. None of us stood still very long and we soon "hot footed it" away from the burning areas.

Our thanks to the owners of the brickworks for allowing our visit, our two informative guides and to Sir Freddie for arranging it and as an added bonus for arranging such perfect weather. In writing this up I have cribbed much information from the 1979 article originally written by Wilfred Beswick, and this has made the task very much easier.
TONY YOWARD


CHELTENHAM PLACE MALTHOUSE - A POSTCRIPT
Peter Holtham's article on the malthouse in the last Newsletter has a sad postscript. This interesting industrial building is now demolished and another piece of North Laine industrial heritage is just a pile of rubble. South of the malthouse in the adjacent Marlborough Place could be seen a shabby garage structure, lately occupied by a 'T' shirt company. On its corrugated iron roof was painted "PETROL 1/2d". How sad that something so obviously historic and charming could be swept away in a single blow from a demolition team. Any chance that the roof was saved for Amberley?
GEOFFREY MEAD

TOWN TRAIL No.2 - EAST GRINSTEAD
The East Grinstead Society has produced a complete re-working of an earlier version of their Town Trail No.2. This includes an historical note and a short description' of each place of interest together with a map of the area. This is available from the East Grinstead public library, the Town Museum and local bookshops at 50p per copy or by post from the East Grinstead Town Museum, East Court, East Grinstead for 70p inclusive of post and packing.

CAVENDISH PLACE BOLLARDS
At the northern end of Cavendish Place, a seafront cul-de-sac near Brighton's West Pier, are two square section bollards of curious design. Open weave cast-iron painted a brilliant yellow and blue, they seem to be placed to prevent carriage wheels and hubs damaging the Regency railings.. I have been asked by a team working with Brighton Museum to supply any information on them. I'm sure SIAS members can come up with enough information to satisfy the researchers.
GEOFFREY MEAD

SUSSEX INDUSTRY- WHAT DIRECTION FOR THE FUTURE?
Industry in Sussex has always been subject to change as methods, products, process, market and raw materials rise and decline in importance, wealth and availability. It is dynamic, responding to these challenging conditions in a variety of ways, and the study of industry - our interest - changes similarly reflecting members fields of research and the relevance of those subjects to society outside (yes, there is life outside Industrial Archaeology!).

In Sussex we are fortunate indeed in having an industrial heritage that predates most other parts of Britain with the multi-phase iron industry in its long time span and industrial relevance. Glass, shipbuilding, charcoal, timber were all early risers in our industrial history; yet it must not only be the distant past we look to for our studies. If it were how could Ted Henbury look at Crawley New town or Hugh Fermer analyse Hollingbury industrial estate, Brighton? We have to bring the changing nature of industry through from iron and glass, to arm and steel and onwards to plastics, power tools and microchips.

I have written in the past of the sectors of industry, primary - raw material provision, secondary - manufacturing, tertiary - the service trades, but now a new force rises on the horizon and one linked in a satisfying way to the county's industrial past. Some researchers now identify a fourth or quaternary sector that of information provision. Part of the Hi-Tech (sorry - that's how they spell it today!) revolution is not based in Tokyo or Silicon Valley California, or even on the M4 corridor. The Hi-Tech revolution in information provision is known as Multi-Media and the U.K. centre is in - wait for it - Brighton!

What is multi-media and what is this article on it doing in an industrial archaeology newsletter? According to the industry's overall watchdog body the Media Development Association (based in Brighton) multi-media came about thus:-
"Through the application of digital technology which provides a kind of universal language for all media work, different media disciplines are converging. traditional demarcations are breaking down creating new opportunities for collaboration and cross-fertilisation. New media hybrids are developing. It is essential that Sussex retains it's pre-eminent position in these new media if the industry is to fulfill its economic promise - what [the participating companies] find in Sussex is an exceptionally strong skill base, a sympathetic culture and an attractive natural environment"

These companies, TV, film, publishing, printing, audio, video, telecommunications, converge ' in the digital technology of the computer disc and Sussex is where they choose to operate. But what connection does this have with IA.? The artistic-media folk do not base themselves in plastic boxes or corrugated steel sheds on out of town estates - no, they choose disused factories, warehouses and industrial buildings in the heart of the town. Buildings we record, we campaign for, we save. the MDA itself operates from an old furniture store in Jew St. Brighton. The site is in the heart of industrial North Laine. - "plus ca change"?
GEOFFREY MEAD

BRIGHTON GAZETTE 28 April 1831
The past volumes of the local press are always a source of industrial information and an hour spent trawling the pages can come up with a rich catch. Two pieces from one edition make up this article but members with time to browse more thoroughly will find an abundance of IA. material in news copy, advertisements, announcements, court hearings and market price lists let alone more obvious pieces such as shipping - in - harbour lists, train or ferry timetables and property sales. The latter was the context of the first piece -
"A valuable copyhold estate situated on the north side of the Bridge; Newhaven, comprising three well known and substantial warehouses with floors which have been used for the past 50 year; for the housing of corn, dry goods and merchanize [sic] of every description, together with the commodious wharf with cranes etc affording every necessary convenience for an extensive business. The above property belonged to the late Mr W. Brown, is holden under the Manor of Meeching and is subject to stinted fines and heriots only"

Harbour facilities, shipping and wharfing (not to mention the illegal side of this) are a venerable Sussex industry important in 1831, before, and in the present, but the next extract is of a wholly novel and revolutionary item, one that was to change indigenous Sussex industry beyond measure, destroying much of the old, boosting others and creating new, fields of enterprise.
"Steam Carriage. Mr Laidlaw has the pleasure to announce to visitors and inhabitants of brighton and its vicinity that he has at length procured at great expanse and labour A STEAM CARRIAGE built upon the most improved principle, conducting itself by its own power along a rail-way expressly made for the purpose, at once shewing to the eye of the spectator the intricacy of the machinery which from the manner it is constructed the most timid person can inspect with perfect safety.
It will be exhibited every day until Tuesday next from 12 to 3 o'clock in the large timber yard, top of Middle St, opposite the National School. Admission each person 6d. Ladies and gentlemen wishing to let their children ride must pay extra." (The shape of things to come!)
GEOFFREY MEAD

SIAS ON THE AIR
During the Brighton Festival this May I was contacted by Brighton and Hove Radio to talk about the town and its work patterns. Members may know the controversy there has been over the merger of Radios Sussex and Surrey with the loss of local identity that entailed. Brighton and Hove Radio broadcast for the time of the festival taking over from last year's Festival Radio ostensibly to provide festival news. However as the team consisted of ex Radio Sussex, Radio Brighton and University of Sussex staff it had a very professional upbeat local programme.

John Henty (ex BBC Radio Brighton) hosted a midday peak-time programme which featured Dr. Fred Gray, Director of CCE University of Sussex talking on leisure and myself discussing work and industry. John Henty was keen to give our Society its full title and not deal in initials! To his great credit he managed to fit our mouthful title into the item several times. 

Great play was made on the need to preserve old industrial buildings which if not utilised for their original purpose will be needed for future nascent industries (see Multi-media elsewhere in this edition). The- radio station itself was broadcasting from a former
SEEBOARD building to add emphasis to the concept. _

It was very refreshing to meet a team of local people, well informed who_had a real interest in their work, our subject and my home town! In contrast a couple of days after I was approached by Radio Sussex & Surrey to talk on railway architecture in a live programme from the Brighton station concourse. It did not bode well when the presenter seated in front of the indicator board pronounced Southwark (near Shoreham) as if it were Southwark (near London Bridge)! He was aware that Brighton station had architectural merit but was stressing the point that a modem railway system was better served with modern buildings. To this I countered by comparing Hassocks station before modernisation and its current bus shelters masquerading as railway buildings, and also by setting the romantic association of the Brighton line and our station as against the bland and featureless East Croydon. However, carping aside, he also gave us our full title (plus the initials) and as they say "there's no such things as bad publicity".
GEOFFREY MEAD

NEWS FROM AMBERLEY MUSEUM
Spring has seen a large amount of activity on site at Amberley. The Museum's Print Shop, a very popular exhibit, has been expanded and developed in the area formally occupied by the Brewery and Laundry exhibits. In its additional space the Print Shop is now able to show visitors much more clearly the printing processes as well as putting more printing equipment on display. Of particular interest is the Victorian Intaglio press which was used for high quality printing from engraved copper plates. This was a process considered unequalled in its dense, black colour and raised effect and was used for refined social stationery and fine artwork. Copper plate engraving is slow and difficult and the plates only last for a few hundred impressions. We are fortunate to have the assistance of one of the few people in the county who undertakes copper plate engraving, artist Audrey Stevens from Chichester. She now works at the Museum from time to time engraving the plates and printing from them.
Adjacent to the Print Shop, a small drawing office has been added to the machine shop exhibit. Small machine shops always had a drawing office attached where the components for machining were drawn by the skilled craftsman. With the advent of computer-aided -design and computer-controlled machines, there are very few of these drawing offices left. The Museum's drawing office shows the traditional drawing board with a range of drawing equipment and slide rules, many of which have never been seen by our current school visitors.
One of our regular craftsmen, Broommaker Arthur Haffenden, has moved into a re-constructed building in our Timberyard. For many years Arthur carried out his popular craft in wind and rain only protected by a canvas awning. His new "building" was dismantled and removed from the site of the new A23 diversion at Handcross and Arthur and many Museum volunteers re-erected it over the winter period. Visitors can now go into the building to see Arthur at work when the weather is less than clement!
This year we have been joined by a new craftsman, signwriter Terry Smith. Terry is a signwriter specialising in traditional styles, materials and techniques. Signwriting is a trade which has contracted considerably in recent years, particularly since the growth of computer-generated vinyl signs of the 1980s. Terry will be demonstrating his craft at Amberley and will provide an additional attraction for our visitors. He is appropriately based in the Signwriting and Paint Shop area of the Spooner and Gordon Wheelwright's Shop which was re-erected at Amberley last year.

Finally 1994 sees the 90th anniversary of motor bus operation in Worthing and the Museum is celebrating with a number of special activities. In particular the recently restored Tilling Stevens petrol/electric double decker bus will be seen out and about on the roads in Worthing and driving over some of its former routes. The celebrations will culminate in a special bus rally at Amberley on the 18th of September this year.
ROBERT TAYLOR


THE SOCIETY'S INSURANCE
Renewal of the Society's insurance has been arranged with different undertakers this year, placed as previously through the Council for British Archaeology. New terms have been imposed, in particular a requirement that the insured will in future have to carry up to the first 850 of any loss of tools or equipment or office contents.
Cover for these items therefore ceases to be a practicable proposition for the Society and will not be included in future, resulting in a reduction in the premium that we pay.
Our insurance will in future be limited to:-
(a) legal liability to our members and to the public up to 2,000,000 any one accident, excluding the first 250 of liability for property damage.
(b) Personal Accident cover for members and volunteers at work for the Society, comprising 5,000 for death, loss of one or more limbs, loss of sight in one or both eyes, or permanent total disablement and 16 per week for temporary total disablement for a maximum of 48 works excluding the first 4 weeks.
As in the past there is no cover for liability to employees. Such cover is a statutory requirement where payment to volunteers or helpers is made. "Payment" includes wages, salaries, subsistence allowances and any other form of remuneration. Any mill owners or operators who make any such payments should therefore ensure that they have cover in force on theIr own account for their liability as an employer.
MICHAEL BEVAN

BOOK REVIEWS
Southampton University Industrial Archaeology Group Journal No.2 (November 1993) ISSN 0%7 - 3474 pp31 A4 illus., 1.50 (including post & packing). Available from Capt. I. Downer, Publications Officer SUIAG., 4 Hartley Close, Bishopstoke, Eastleigh, Hants. S05 3NE. 

Readers familiar with issue No. 1 of November 1992 will note the fall in price from 4.50 (inclusive of postage) to 1.50. This has been achieved without loss of content but at some slight loss of quality in the printing of the illustrations. This does not seriously detract and the excellent value represented by the lower price will undoubtedly attract additional readers. As would be expected the content is in the main concerned with Hampshire. Edwin Course relates the history of the Twyford Pumping Station and the process by which it was preserved. It is a story that he is well qualified to tell because of his close connection with the establishment of the Trust that now controls the site. The other three Hampshire articles are an account of detailed map study and fieldwork which established the course of the Southampton and Salisbury Canal through the parish of West Dean (by Jon Sims), an intriguing glimpse into the way that Barnum & Bailey's Circus travelled by rail to their venues using specially constructed railway stock, including visits to Southampton and Portsmouth (by Bill White) and Michael Tighe's account of Gunner & Co. of Bishops Waltham, the last provincial private bank which was absorbed by Barclays in 1953. The remaining two articles do not relate to Hampshire. Gerald Davies reviews the restoration work being undertaken on the Forth & Clyde and the Edinburgh & Glasgow Union Canals while James Paffet explains the methods of production and characteristics of cast iron, wrought iron and the various types of steel. A value packed issue and easy on the pocket.
BRIAN AUSTEN

Alan F. Hill, Sussex Savings Banks: an informal history (Lewes 1994) pp 46 4.75 including post & packing. Available from the author at 44 Houndean Rise, Lewes, East Sussex BN171EQ. By means of diligent research the author has identified 14 Sussex Savings Banks founded between 1812 and 1845 aimed at promoting thrift amongst the small traders and labouring classes. The great and good of the County were behind the schemes, anxious in a time of distress, to divert attention from the attractions of radical politics and more directly to keep down the poor rate. Such banks played an important role until the arrival of the Post Office Savings Bank in 1862. The restricted and sometimes inconvenient hours of opening of the Savings Banks made them less attractive than the new competitor and progressively they were closed down. The only one to survive later than the period of World War I was the Brighton Savings Bank which from 1941 started to develop a branch network. It became the South Eastern Trustee Savings Bank in 1948 and formed part of the privatised TSB plc group in 1983.
This work contains a clear account of the establishment of the Sussex savings banks and their subsequent development. The history of each of the institutions is traced. Printed documents are reproduced in facsimile and attractive drawings provided of the Arundel, Brighton and Lewes premises, all occupying dignified purpose built mid-nineteenth century banking houses. The book is of A4 format with a spiral binding. It forms a definitive account of an important element in the banking sector in Sussex, is well produced and attractive and represents excellent value.
BRIAN AUSTEN

Colin Brent, Georgian Lewes 1714-1830 The heyday of a Country Town. (Colin Brent Books, Lewes, 1993

Colin Brent's pedigree as a researcher, writer and town guide to his beloved Lewes is known to many of us (never turn down a chance to be part of his Lewes tours). This handsomely produced volume has all the panache of a Brent walk, combined with his meticulous scouring of the archives and gives to the town a gloriously rich window.

Two chapters stand out as interest in particular to SIRS members "The Mart of Mid-Sussex: exchange of local produce" followed by "The mart of Mid-Sussex: Out-County Commodities and Credit". Its industries ranged from the heavy work of iron-founders and timber yards, through dryers of hops, printers and breechesmakers to the intricate work of peruke-makers. 

But it is invidious to pluck out of context "industrial" subjects. The whole town is a rich complex of trade, industry, commerce, but also of church life social affairs and the built environment. Each strand leads to others and we can see the stages of growth and decline, continuity and change that have shaped this very delightful community.
GEOFFREY MEAD

 

 

 

 

 

Lowfield Heath Windmill
The following details of the brakewheel and brake are reproduced from Newsletter No. 9 of the Friends of Lowfield Heath Windmill:-
THE BRAKEWHEEL AND BRAKE DETAILS (by Peter James)
With reference to figure 1, a cast iron square is fixed onto the cast iron windshaft, and the centre of the brakewheel is fitted onto a cast iron square using wood wedges. The brakewheel has clasp arms made of oak, each of which sandwich the elm cants, which in turn are plated each side with elm fellies. Around the periphery are fitted 112 cogs.


Wrapped around the outside of the brakewheel at 'C' is the brake, this is made in four sections of elm joined by wrought iron straps. One end of the brake is secured to the side of the mill. The other end is attached to the end of the brake lever at 'A'.

The brake lever is about 12 feet long and runs along the side of the mill. The brake operates by a combination of weight applied to the lever and the natural tightening of the brake due to the rotational direction of the flywheel. The movement of the brake lever is shown at 'B'.

The wedge shaped cogs at 'D' a secured into the brakewheel tapered mortices. Additionally the are pinned at the rear, see figure 2. These cogs in turn drive the stone nut which turns the actual millstone. 

Notice the head of the cog is offset, this is to allow for the final fitting of the cogs into the brakewheel by planing one edge. The opposite shoulder of the cog transmits the bending movement to the face of the brakewheel (due to the force exerted by the meshing gear).

At present the tailwheel is secured by ropes to prevent the windshaft and the sails rotating. Once installed the brake will allow us to control the sails. Wind power with our new sail cloths will turn the sails for the first time for about 115 years!

IFIELD WATERMILL
The winter period saw us constructing a new launder to replace the one installed some 12 years. The new one was assembled within the mill from 1" thick oak and is nearly 18 ft. long. This was broken down into four main sections and rebuilt, in position over the wheel, in approximately 6 hours.

The re-cogging of the main spur wheel has continued, which will then enable the proposed setting up of the stone nut and shaft.

The French Burr stone, rescued from the Hazelwick mill site about five years ago, has now been successfully recast with plaster of paris and iron bands fitted. This was achieved by laying the stone segments onto a 1" thick blockboard base, covered with a plastic sheet, tightening the assembly with webbing straps to hold a hardboard rim in place. The fine casting plaster was then-poured and the whole left to harden before fitting the three iron bands.

National Mills open day was reasonably attended with just over 100 people passing through, somewhat down on previous years. Work is now in hand on the control mechanism within the water control box. We have much of the arms, brakeband and pivot bearings remade or refurbished and hope to have this working by the autumn. The next sage will be to extend the operating shaft to enable the water flow to be controlled from within the mill, on the stone floor.
TED HENBERY

LOST MILLS OF SUSSEX 2. BOLNEY MILL
This is the next in my "Lost Windmills of Sussex" Series.
The first evidence of a windmill at Bolney comes from the parish register, which records the burial on 2 December 1743 of John Davy, "killed accidentally by the windmill". We cannot say whether the mill was one of those mentioned below.

Later one is shown on Gream's map of 1795, about half a mile north of the church, and another is said to have existed on the south side of the road between the Fox and Hounds and a place called Long Wood, on land still known well into the twentieth century as Millfields.

Of principal interest to us though will be the smock mill which stood to the north-east of the church, opposite the Queen's Head public house. This is first shown on Faden's map of 1795, although it is described in a sale notice four years later as "newly built" (the claims made in these documents are often exaggerated). It may have been the mill put up for sale in 1778 along with a house and half an acre of ground, but so could Gream's. Certainly H.E.S. Simmons could find no evidence of its existence before then. A timber inside the mill on which was painted "T F 1828" probably came from elsewhere, unless the date commemorates repair;.

The mill is next mentioned in the Defence Schedules of 1801. Schedule 1 records it as being capable of supplying 1 sack of flour every 24 hours, but in Schedule 2 the amount has r risen to 20 sacks - surely an error as such a huge increase in output does not seem likely! The miller at the time was John Barber, who in 1813 disposed of it along with a newly erected watermill to William Packham. Packham in turn sold it to John Bennett, in 1818. The following years were bad times for millers, due to a slump in the rural economy, and by 1825 Bennett was bankrupt. The next two incumbents, Robert Brazier Rice and Thomas Terry, were both short-lived, meeting the same fate. Then things seem to have stabilised, with Henry Leppard at the mill from 1839 to 1859. Later millers were H. Payne (1866), Thomas Ashby (1870, 1874), Messrs. Packham and Comber (1876, 1882), John Packham (1887), and finally a man named Pierce. The mill was purchased c.1878-80 by a prominent local dignitary, Edward Huth JP of Wykehurst Park. According to him it was by then out of use, but this of course conflicts with the evidence of the directories, besides which remarks made by a local inhabitant to Gurney Wilson imply that it stopped in 1891 or 2 when one of the sweeps broke off.

Huth carved out no maintenance to the mill, as he preferred it in an ancient and dilapidated state and thought restoration would spoil its romance! The remaining sweeps were removed in 1905, and at the same time the millstones were taken out and placed on either side of a new lych gate at the church. Latterly the derelict mill saw service as a coal merchant's store and a chicken run. It was finally demolished in 1916, having been condemned as unsafe.

Bolney mill was a small one, about 36 feet high, with two pairs of stones. The cap roof was straight-pitched, with the boarding carried down vertically to form a skirt around the top of the tower. 1 The mill was of particular interest in that it seems to have been virtually untouched for the whole of its working life. Few other Sussex tower or smock mills - if any - remained so primitive in character until the end. It was one of the last in the county to be winded by hand, the others being Hammond's Mill, Billingshurst and Black Mill, Bognor.2 The sweeps were commons, and most of the machinery was of wood apart from the iron windshaft. Not only the machinery but the whole of the structure was wooden; there was no brickwork in it apart from the foundations. 3 Only one other Sussex smock mill, at Guestling, is known to have exhibited this feature. 4 It is not necessarily a sign of age, being found on mills dating from well into the nineteenth century, but is comparatively rare and associated mainly with eastern Kent.

NOTES
1. Photograph in Brighton Reference Library 
2. R Hawksley 
3. Photograph in Brighton Reference Library
4. R. Hawksley

It should be assumed, unless indicated otherwise, that all other information is derived from the Simmons Collection. The same will apply to future articles in this series.
GUY BLYTHMAN

DRAPER'S MILL, SILVERHILL ST. LEONARDS. (TQ 798106)
With reference to Mr. G. Blythman's article on' Draper's NM Silverhill, St. Leonards, I would. '` to make the following comments, corrections and additions:- 
(1) I assume that the article in the Hastings & St. Leonards News dated 24 Feb 1865 gives details of the fire which destroyed the earlier mill on the site. This date is two years earlier than that given by G.M. Powell in Windmills in Sussex, by Peter Hernming in Windmills in Sussex and by` M. Brunnarius in The Windmills of Sussex, all admittedly without any source references. As all: these authors give 1868 as the year in which the replacement mill was built, has Mr. Blythman any reference that confirms his earlier date of 1866 for this?
(2) Mr. Blythman says "'Ibis large white smock stood on a two floor brick base which, sometime after 1890, was enclosed within a square structure which served as a stage"., Mr. R.G. Martin's drawing shows that neither the statement nor the drawing accurately portray Draper's Mill. Examination of a photograph from the August 1934 Sussex County Magazine and of a photograph sold by the Hastings and St. Leonards Observer in about 1960 shows that the "*square structure" was built in front of the brick mill base and formed only part of the gallery, the rest being apparently a normal octagonal brick base and gallery.
(3) Hemmings says that, in the 1930s, Draper's Mill had three pairs of Burr stones and one pair of Peak stones in use. he also stated that it originally drove five pairs but that a pair o Peaks
had been removed at some time. He notes that the sails were 28 ft. long ad had 32 shutters although the 1934 photograph in SCM apparently shows 10 bays with three shutters per bay. This last comment suggests that care should be taken when interpreting previously published information.
MICHAEL H. YATES

E&OE in transcription - please report any apparent errors
The presentation here is for use in Personal, Private study. It may not be used otherwise without express permission. 
Please contact the General Secretary with details of intended use.

Home ] Up ]

Send mail to webmaster@sussexias.co.uk with questions or comments about this web site.
Copyright 2001-3 Sussex Industrial Archaeology Society & contributors. All rights reserved.
Last modified: March 12, 2003